Estate planning is an obvious concern for all parents, but if you have a child with special needs, it’s crucial that you are aware of the unique considerations that go into planning for a child who may be dependent on you at some level for their lifetime.
When creating your estate plan, there are two major considerations for you to focus on: 1) Who would care for your child if and when you could not (also known as guardianship), and 2) How your child’s financial needs would be met if you were not there to meet them.
NAMING LEGAL GUARDIANS FOR A LIFETIME OF CARE
The first and most critical step in ensuring the future well-being of your child with special needs is to name both short- and long-term legal guardians to take custody of and care for your child in the event of your death or incapacity. And as you well know, if your child will never become fully capable of independently caring for him or herself, your parenting responsibilities will continue on long after your child reaches adulthood.
Although this lifetime responsibility often and understandably feels overwhelming, properly naming legal guardians creates an immense sense of relief. Not only that, but the named guardians can be carefully instructed—and even incentivized—to give the child the same level of attention and care that the parents provide.
For example, we’ve created plans in which the named guardian is compensated for taking a child to dinner and the movies every week or participating in a similar activity. However, without written instructions (and perhaps compensation) built into your estate plan, fun activities like this are often neglected once you are no longer there.
PROVIDING FOR YOUR CHILD’S FINANCIAL FUTURE: SPECIAL NEEDS TRUSTS
Beyond naming legal guardians for your child with special needs, you’ll also need to provide financial resources to allow your child to live out his or her life in the manner you desire. And this is where things can get tricky for children with special needs.
In fact, it may seem like a “Catch-22” situation: you want to leave your child enough money to afford the care and support he or she needs to live a comfortable life, yet if you leave money directly to a person with special needs, you risk disqualifying that individual for much-needed government benefits like Medicaid and Supplemental Social Security Income (SSI).
Fortunately, the government allows assets to be held in what’s known as a “special needs trust” to provide supplemental financial resources for a physically, mentally, or developmentally disabled child, without affecting his or her eligibility for public health care and income assistance benefits. However, the rules for such trusts are complicated and can vary greatly between states, so you should always work with an experienced attorney to create a comprehensive special needs trust that’s properly structured and appropriate for your child’s specific situation.
SETTING UP THE TRUST
Funds from a special needs trust cannot be distributed directly to your child, and instead must be disbursed to a third party who’s responsible for managing the trust. Given this, when you initially set up the trust, you will likely be both the Grantor (trust creator) and Trustee (the person responsible for managing the trust), and your child with special needs is the trust’s Beneficiary.
You’ll then name the person you want responsible for administering the trust’s funds upon your death or incapacity as the Successor Trustee. To avoid conflicts of interest, overburdening the legal guardian with too much responsibility, and providing a system of checks and balances, it may be a wise decision to name someone other than your child’s legal guardian as a Trustee.
As the parent, you serve as the Trustee until you die or become incapacitated, at which time the Successor Trustee takes over. Each person who serves as Trustee is legally required to follow the trust’s terms and use its funds and property for the benefit of your special needs child.
Additionally, you should name multiple Successor Trustees—which can even be a trust company, bank, or another professional fiduciary—as backups in case something happens to prevent the individual you’ve named as primary Trustee from serving.
There are two ways to set up a special needs trust. In the first option, we build it into your revocable living trust, and it will arise, or spring up, upon your death. From there, assets that are held in your living trust will be used to fund your child’s special needs trust.
In the other option, we can set up a special needs trust that acts as a vehicle for receiving and holding assets for your child right now. This option makes sense if you have grandparents or other relatives who want to give your special needs child gifts sooner rather than later.
Finally, it is important to ensure that the trust will have sufficient funds to last throughout the life of your child. One common method to provide funding is for you (or another loved one) to name the special needs trust as the beneficiary of your life insurance policy. Another way is for family members and friends to make donations or gifts to the trust and/or include it as a beneficiary in their will.
THE TRUSTEE’S ROLE
Once the trust is funded, it’s the Trustee’s job to use the trust funds to support your child without jeopardizing eligibility for government benefits. To ensure this is handled properly, the Trustee must have a thorough understanding of how eligibility for such benefits works and stay current with the ever-changing laws. The Trustee is also required to pay the beneficiary’s taxes, keep detailed records, invest trust property, and stay current with the beneficiary’s needs.
Given this immense responsibility, it’s often best that you name a legal or financial professional who’s familiar with the complexities of the law as Trustee or Co-Trustee, so they can properly handle the duties and not jeopardize your child’s eligibility for government benefits. Alternatively, we can advise your named personal Trustee on how to manage the Trust.
YOUR TRUSTED SOURCE FOR SPECIAL NEED PLANNING
If you have a child with special needs, we invite you to meet with us for trusted guidance and support in creating a special needs trust and other estate planning vehicles for your child. We offer an array of estate planning strategies that are designed to accommodate the unique needs presented by a child with special needs and their families.
We will assist you in passing on the financial assets needed for your child to have a rich quality of life, without jeopardizing his or her eligibility for government benefits. We’ll also support you in finding and appointing a legal guardian and/or Trustee to ensure your child is protected and provided for in the exact manner you wish when you die or if you become incapacitated.
This article is a service of Davidek Law Firm, PLLC. We don’t just draft documents; we ensure that families and business owners make informed and empowered decisions about life and death, for themselves and the people they love.